X-ray imaging method Mammography:
Mammography is an X-ray imaging method used to examine breast for the early detection of cancer and other breast disease. It is used as both a diagnostic and screening tool

How does it perform:
During a mammogram, a patientís breast is placed on a flat hold up plate and compressed with a parallel plate called a paddle. An x-ray machine produces a small burst of x-rays that proceed through the breast to a detector located on the opposite side. The detector can be either a photographic film plate, which captures the x-ray image on film, or a solid-state detector, which transmits electronic signals to a computer to form a digital image. The images produced are called mammograms. On a film mammogram, low density tissues, such as fat, appear translucent (i.e. darker shades of gray approaching the black background)., whereas areas of dense tissue, such as connective and glandular tissue or tumors, appear whiter on a gray background. In a standard mammogram, both a top and a side view are taken of each breast, although extra views may be taken if the physician is concerned about a suspicious area of the breast.

X Ray imaging method Mammography.jpg

Basic principles of X-ray mammography:
The ultimate goal of X-ray mammography is to produce detailed images of the internal structure of the breast to permit the earlier detection of breast cancer because fine detail is needed the process require image with high spatial resolution because the inherent X-ray attenuation different between normal and diseased breast tissue is so small high quality mammography requires the ability to enhance those difference and provide high contrast resolution producing such image involves a complex interaction of many interrelated factor.

Mammography is the process of using low energy X-ray to examine the human breast for diagnosis and screening the goal of mammography is the early detection of breast cancer typically detection of characteristic masses or micro calcification

What age should a woman get a Mammogram:
Women ages from 40 to 44 should have the choice to start annual breast cancer screening with mammograms (x-rays of the breast) if they wish to do so Screening with mammogram every year. Women 55 and older should switch to mammograms every 2 years, or can continue yearly screening.

Common clinical application
Screening mammography: To detect early cancer is asymptomatic woman diagnosis mammography to image the breast for diagnosis of a previously identified suspicious breast lesion surveillance mammography to assess recurrence of malignancy in women with known breast cancer

Is radiography used for mammography:
The X-ray beam spectrum one of the most unique features of mammography compared to other radiography procedures is the X-ray beam spectrum that is used

Advantage:
  • Reduced the risk of dying from breast cancer of 1,000 women who have a mammogram every 2 years for 20year, 7 deaths are prevented
  • Allow women to know the health of their breast


Disadvantage:
Drawback of mammography such as false negative and false positive mammogram are sensitive up to about 90% of the breast which mean there is about a 10% chance that a small tumor is present, but not detected this is called a false negative

Radiation of mammography:
Now Modern-day mammography involves a tiny amount of radiation exposure, even less than a standard chest X-ray. On average, the total radiation dose for a typical mammogram with two views of each breast is about 0.4 millisieverts, or mSv (A mSv is a measure of radiation does)

Does mammography use ionizing radiation :
The imaging modalities that use ionizing radiation includes X-ray, computed tomography (CT) fluoroscopy, mammography, and stereotactic guided biopsy. MRI and ultrasound do not utilize X-ray to abstain image of the body.